The most common and conventional method of designing against shear in reinforced concrete structures is via the provision of shear-links (stirrups). However, in certain scenarios, shear cannot be resisted via the use of links alone, especially where the applied shear-force is enormous. In such scenarios, a very effective way of resisting shear in concrete is by combining shear-links with the provision of bent-up bars
A significant opening within masonry walls will always require a lintel of some sort to bridge over it. In contrast to popular opinion, lintels are structural elements though classified as secondary structural elements whose primary function is to support the masonry that arches over the opening
For every structure, frame stability is an important area of consideration. Designers of structural steel-work were the first to recognize the importance of considering the stability of steel frames in BS-5950.
The designer of a composite floor has a number of basic and obvious decisions to make, including what type of beam to use and what type of decking. He or she also has some more detailed decisions, such as the choice of propped or unpropped construction, whether the steel beams will be restrained during construction, and how will the upper surfaces of the slabs be levelled during concreting
Ribbed slabs incorporate voids to the soffits of slabs or replace voids with lighter materials.
Column base plates are provided beneath steel columns in order to transmit the applied design forces safely to the foundations. Steel columns are heavily loaded and their cross-sections are typically small…….
Concealed concrete beams are beams whose depth are kept equal to the thickness of the supported slab. They are normally reinforced separately from the slab, having longitudinal bars and stirrups like a drop beam.
he choice of the slab type and form is very critical for the other structural elements and overall stability of a structure.
Steel columns in simple construction are the most popular type of columns encountered in multi-storey steel buildings in practice
Torsion in structures is something that is best avoided as far as possible. This is because the twisting of structural elements generates large internal forces which result in a significant increase in element sizes and possibly even change in form