The most common and conventional method of designing against shear in reinforced concrete structures is via the provision of shear-links (stirrups). However, in certain scenarios, shear cannot be resisted via the use of links alone, especially where the applied shear-force is enormous. In such scenarios, a very effective way of resisting shear in concrete is by combining shear-links with the provision of bent-up bars
A significant opening within masonry walls will always require a lintel of some sort to bridge over it. In contrast to popular opinion, lintels are structural elements though classified as secondary structural elements whose primary function is to support the masonry that arches over the opening
For every structure, frame stability is an important area of consideration. Designers of structural steel-work were the first to recognize the importance of considering the stability of steel frames in BS-5950.
Ribbed slabs incorporate voids to the soffits of slabs or replace voids with lighter materials.
Column base plates are provided beneath steel columns in order to transmit the applied design forces safely to the foundations. Steel columns are heavily loaded and their cross-sections are typically small…….
Concealed concrete beams are beams whose depth are kept equal to the thickness of the supported slab. They are normally reinforced separately from the slab, having longitudinal bars and stirrups like a drop beam.
Steel columns in simple construction are the most popular type of columns encountered in multi-storey steel buildings in practice
Torsion in structures is something that is best avoided as far as possible. This is because the twisting of structural elements generates large internal forces which result in a significant increase in element sizes and possibly even change in form
Steel elements are often required to sustain tensile forces, these elements are referred to as tension members or tie. Example of tension members includes steel bracings in buildings, roof truss members, cables et
Laterally unrestrained steel beams are beams in which the compression flange do not have sufficient restraint and as a result susceptible to lateral-torsional buckling, a failure mechanism of steel beams due to buckling